THILO PAPP1, DIETMAR SCHIFFMANN1, DIETER WEISS1, VINCE CASTRANOVA2, VAL VALLYATHAN2, & QAMAR RAHMAN3
Published in: journal Nanotoxicology, Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2008 , pages 9 – 27
1Institute of Cell Biology & Biosystems Technology, Rostock University Rostock, Germany, 2National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, and 3Dean Research & Development Integral University, Lucknow, India
Nanotechnology presents countless opportunities to develop new and improved consumer products for the benefit of society. However, as the industrial production and use of nanotechnology products continue to expand at a fast scale, potential human health concerns and ecological safeguards for the environment need to be addressed. Health risk assessment involving different animal species for multi-organ toxicity complimented with molecular investigations in cells is essential for investigating the potential toxic effects of nanomaterials. The purpose of this review is to present the current state of knowledge regarding the potential routes of human exposure to nanomaterials and their biological health effects. Although anthropogenic nanosized particles emitted in the environment are known to produce adverse human health in susceptible populations, much remains to be explored. Exposures can occur from direct exposure or from the use of commercial products made of nanomaterials. Safe manufacturing guidelines for prevention of exposures and recommendations on safe handling and use need to be established on a proactive basis to prevent adverse outcomes.