wolbring

Meaning of disability, body image, person and health


Table 1 covers area of disability; table 2 the body image; table 3 language around person table 4   health

 

Table 1

Glossary for the 21st Century a starting point by Dr. Gregor Wolbring
Term Definition
Disability
If one hears the term disability or disabled person or people with adisability… often two different aspects (body image and social reality) are covered by the term disability

 

a) the terms are used to label the body and its functioning as deficient as impaired as non normative as sub normative based on species-typical expectations and

b) the terms are used to describe the social, environmental parameter a person with a certain body functioning faces.

 

I do believe it is better to use different terms for the two areas of body image and social reality. This is reflected in the definitions below.

Also to the discussion of “people first language” whether one should use ‘disabled person’ or ‘person with a disability’ within the context of this glossary the order is irrelevant as both orders have the same interpretation of the term disability they use. So I do not adhere here to one or the other order.

 

Furthermore one can also reshape the two discourses within ability studies language

 

Body image wording in ability studies language

Impairment is a medical model of body understanding. A social model of body language could be ability diverse body

Social reality in Ability Studies language

Disability  so the social discrimination  can also be rephrased in ability studies language namely disabled people are ability expectation oppressed people. And people with disabilities are people that are oppressed by ability expectations and experiencing ability expectation oppression is a form of disability.

 

                           Models of disabilityIf we ignore for the time being the problem that the term disability is used to describe body image and social reality, there is a debate as to what causes the disablement. The oldest and most used model the medical model situate the culprit of the disablement within the body whereas the newer model put forward by disability right movement in the 1960’s onwards perceives the lack of social accommodation to the ability difference of the person as the cause of the disablement. But to be clear the models are about where the disablement is originating from. The models do not say anything about the body image (deviation or variation, see below for body image options).  I myself therefore prefer to have the term disability to be used just to highlight the disablement and use other terms to highlight the body image. Instead of using the term disability to label the body image.
Medical model ofDisability People disabled by their body-structure related sub species-typical functioning
Social model of disability People disabled by the attitudinal andenvironmental barriers they experience due to their body-structure related sub species-typical functioning that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with

others

Transhumanized medical model of disability People disabled by their body structure related -‘as impaired labelled’- sub species-typical and species-typical functioning (everyone not performing beyond species-typical functioning).
Transhumanized social model of disability People disabled by the attitudinal andenvironmental barriers they experience due to their body-structure related sub species-typical and species-typical functioning that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others

 

Table 2

The body imageThis section is about the different ways the body can be perceived. In tune with my believe that disability should NOT be used to describe the body I use here impairment to signify a medical model of the body understanding and terms such as ‘variability’ and ‘ability diverse’ to signify a social model of the body understanding of the body.

 

Impairment/medical deficiency model of the body/body image A body that is labelled to function sub species- typical
Transhumanized version A body that is labelled to function sub species-
of Impairment/medical deficiency model of the body/body image typical and species-typical
Vari-ability/ability diverse/ non medical/non deficiency model of the body/body image A vari-ability in bodily functioning that differs from the species-typical norm but does not exceed the species-typical norm and is seen as a variation and not a deviation
Transhumanized understanding of Variability/ non medical/non deficiency model of the body/body image A vari-ability in bodily functioning that exceed the species-typical norm and is seen as a variation and not a deviation

 

 

Table 3

The person (the definitions here take into account that there are two discourses around the person namely the labelling of the body and the treatment of the person) as outlined above and that the term disabled/disability… should only be used to classify the social reality and that if one wants to describe the body that there are terms such as impairment/variability, ability diverse. If one want to highlight the body image and the social reality at the same time one has to use a combination.      
Disabled person/ability expectation oppressed people Everyone who encounters body structure/function related attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders ones full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,
Person with a Disability/people who are oppressed by ability expectations Everyone who encounters body structure/function related attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders one‟s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,
Impaired person/Person with an Impairment Everyone who identifies oneself as having a sub-normative functioning, deficient body based on a species-typical norm.
Vari-abled, ability diverse person/ Person with a vari-abled, ability diverse Body Everyone who identifies oneself as having a vari- ability in bodily functioning that differs from the species-typical norm but does not exceed the species typical norm.
Vari-abled/ability diverse and disabled person (ability expectation oppressed person) Everyone who identifies oneself as having a vari- ability in bodily functioning that differs from the species typical norm and who encounters                                    body structure/function related, ableism related attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder one‟s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.
Impaired and disabled person (ability expectation oppressed person) Everyone who identifies oneself as having sub-normative, deficient bodily functioning based on a species-typical norm and who encounters body

 

structure/function related, ableism related attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder one‟s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.
Transhumanized impaired person (techno poor impaired person) Everyone who identifies oneself as being deficient because one is not able to improve oneself beyond Homo sapiens normative functioning whether through a) external means by shaping the environment, or b) internal means by modifying ones bodily structures.
Transhumanized disabled person/ person (ability expectation oppressed person)  (techno poor disabled person/ (ability expectation oppressed person) Everyone who is not enhanced beyond Homo sapiens normative functioning whether through a) external means by shaping the environment, or b) internal means by modifying ones bodily structures and who encounters body structure/function related attitudinal and environmental barriers mostly justified by a transhumanized version of ableism that hinder one‟s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.
Transhumanized impaired and disabled person (techno poor impaired and disabled person/ (ability expectation oppressed person) Everyone who identifies oneself as being deficient because one is not able to improve oneself beyond Homo sapiens normative functioning whether through a) external means by shaping the environment, or b) internal means by modifying ones bodily structures and who encounters attitudinal and environmental barriers mostly justified by a transhumanized version of ableism that hinder one‟s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,
Transhumanized vari- abled/ability diverse person Everyone who identifies oneself as having a beyond species-typical functioning variability in bodily functioning that differs from the species-typical norm. This could be achieved by a) external means by shaping the environment, or b) internal meansby modifying ones bodily structures
Transhumanized vari- abled (ability diverse) and disabled person (ability expectation oppressed person) Everyone who identifies oneself as having a beyond species-typical functioning variability in bodily functioning that differs from the species- typical norm and was achieved through a) external means by shaping the environment, or b) internal means by modifying ones bodily structures and who therefore encounters attitudinal and environmental barriers mostly justified by an Anti- transhumanized version of ableism that hinder one’s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others 
Examples of different combination of body image/image of the person and social treatment (disablement, disability)As stated above one can have different combinations of body image and social reality a) medical/medical; b) medical/social; c) social/social and d) social/medical. Below the term disability is use to cover social reality
Medical/Medical 

medical model of the person/medical model of

disability

The impairment (sub-species typical functioning) is the cause of the disablement, the lack of full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with non-impaired, species-typical people
Medical/Social 

medical model of the person/ Social model of

disability

disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments (sub-species typical functioning) and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.  This is the combination used in the WHO model of “disability”, the UN convention on the rights of persons with “disabilities” and the American with “Disability” Act
Social/ Social 

social model of the person/ Social model of disability,

Disability is the attitudinal and environmental barriers an ability diverse/variable person faces due to their ability diverse/variabled body related functioning that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,
Transhuman medical/socialtranshumanist model of the person/Social model of disability, disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments (species-typical and sub species-typical functioning) and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,

Table 4

Models (identity) and determinants (interventions) of Health
If one deals with models and determinants of health one in the end deals with two issues. The models of health define the client (animal human, nature) and the cause whereby the determinants define the intervention
Medical model of health (31;46)     Within the medical model of health, health is characterized as the normative functioning of biological systems (e.g. in humans or animals, nature) whereas disease/ illness is defined as the sub- normative functioning of biological systems. The “patient is the target of improvement through intervention (cure or prevention) .
Medical determinants of medical health    

place the cause of sub-normative functioning within the individual patient’s biological system leading to medical interventions towards the species typical

norm on the level of the individual focusing on medical cure, medical individualistic care and individualistic normative rehabilitation as the primary endpoint and at the political level the principal response is to make curative medicine more efficient (31;46)

Social determinants/ interventions of medical health 

identify external factors as the cause for the “ill medical health” the sub-normative functioning of the individual, the patient and tries to fix the external factors to prevent medical ill health. This includes, for example, the elimination of contaminated water that leads to bacterial or parasitic infections, or job insecurity that contributes to stress and heart disease. (31;46). Although some social determinants interventions such as decreasing job insecurity also increase social well being, the performance indicator is a positive change in a medical parameter.

Social Health 

Social well-being of a person not labeled as being in ill medical health or in danger of being medical ill (31;46);

 

Social determinants of social health

 

Interventions on the societal level that improve the social well-being

Transhumanized healthTranshumanized medical determinant intervention  

 

all Homo sapiens bodies – no matter how conventionally “medically healthy” – are defined as limited and defective as in ill health in need of constant improvement made possible by new technologies appearing on the horizon (a little bit like the constant software upgrades we do on our computers). Health in this model is the concept of having obtained maximum (at any given time) enhancement (improvement) of one’s abilities, functioning and body structure. (31;46)

 

These interventions see enhancement beyond species-typical body structures and functioning as a therapeutic intervention (transhumanization of medicalization) (31;46). Enhancement medicine is the new field providing the remedy and maintenance through surgery, pharmaceuticals, implants and other intervention on the level of the body. (31;46)

Existing understanding of Rehabilitation 

Rehabilitation is a treatment or treatments designed to facilitate the process of recovery from injury, illness, or disease to as normal a condition as possible.

 

The purpose of rehabilitation is to restore some or all of the patient’s physical, sensory, and mental capabilities that were lost due to injury, illness, or disease. Rehabilitation includes assisting the patient to compensate for deficits that cannot be reversed medically.

 

The aim of rehabilitation, “to restore an individual to his/her former functional and environmental status, or alternatively, to maintain or maximize remaining function” (Williams, 1984, p. xiii),

 

http://medical- dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Rehabilitation

 

 

 

Transhumanized understanding of RehabilitationRehabilitation is a treatment or treatments designed to facilitate the process of recovery from injury, illness, or disease to as optimum a condition as possible.

Rehabilitation is a treatment or treatments designed to facilitate the process of gaining a as optimum a condition as possible.

The purpose of rehabilitation is to restore some or all of the patient’s physical, sensory, and mental capabilities that were lost due to injury, illness, or disease. Rehabilitation includes assisting the patient to compensate for deficits that cannot be reversed medically.

 

The aim of rehabilitation, “to restore an individual

to his/her I former functional and environmental status, or alternatively, to maintain or maximize remaining function” (Williams, 1984, p. xiii),

 

Modified from http://medical- dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Rehabilitation

 

 

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